Auto Plus Service Centre
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Auto Electrical

Auto Electrician Artarmon

At Auto Plus Service Centre, our auto electricians have repaired and fixed many various vehicle electrical and car computer faults that can occur from time to time, our workshop is located in the Sydney north shore in Artarmon, give us call.

Below is a range of info that can help understand your car auto electrical problems

The chemical reaction created between the lead plates and the electrolyte creates dangerous, explosive gases that vent through the battery cover vents. Care should always be taken when charging or jump starting low batteries and whenever working under the hood of the car. Always keep the battery clean to allow proper ventilation.

Some batteries use a gel to replace the electrolyte for a somewhat safer battery, and the use of "maintenance-free" batteries has eliminated the need for refilling the electrolyte. However, all batteries lose charging capacity over time through the loss of the electrolyte, deterioration of the plates and chemical breakdown of the connections.

Whenever a car exhibits symptoms of a charging or starting system failure, the most basic test that should be performed first is a visual and voltage test of the battery. Knowing the exact condition of the battery is the best way to know whether or not to suspect other system components and can prevent the unnecessary installation of a starter or alternator, which cannot repair the vehicle until the battery is up to snuff.

To analyze the condition of a battery, very little high-tech equipment is really needed. While there is excellent equipment available for big $$$$, all that is really needed is a good DVOM (Digital Volt Ohm Meter), a battery charger, some patience and a little common sense.

A quick way to tell if a battery needs recharging is by observing the "eye" on the battery and being able to determine what the colour of the eye is telling you. Below is a chart of various battery manufacturers that use a coloured eye, as well as what the different colours mean:


Before replacing any battery due to a failure, have the battery and the car's electrical system tested for proper functioning. Replacing a dead battery only to have another a few weeks later due to a weak alternator or a parasitic drain on the system is not only frustrating but can be expensive and dangerous as well.

An average battery should last 3-5 years on average climates but those in high heat or extremely cold areas may last only 2-3 years. The replacement battery should always have the same or higher CCA rating (cold cranking amps) as the original and be of the same or compatible "group size" to fit the battery tray and cable connections.

Your Import Car's Alternator

The alternator produces electricity used to maintain battery storage charge and to help run all the electrical accessories, including the ignition and the engine control systems. It is belt-driven by the engine and produces an alternating current (AC), which is converted internally to 12 volts direct current (DC) by the diode bridge or rectifiers.

AC current cannot be stored but is much more efficiently produced, which is why cars no longer use generators but use alternators and convert the electricity to DC. Most alternators now use internal voltage regulators to maintain the proper system voltage, from 12.6-14.5 volts. You should check your car's repair manual or with your local dealer to obtain the exact proper voltage for your car.

Contrary to popular belief, an alternator does not constantly produce electricity. It cycles on and off as demand goes up and down. The battery buffers it from the electrical demands of the car, and it only works enough to maintain system voltage. At peak efficiency and for longest life, the alternator should be charging no more than about 50% of the time.

However, with the demands placed on the system by heat and by extraneous electrical devices (i.e., high powered stereos, running lights, etc. - see Power Demand Chart below), the alternator and battery are stressed even further. The average alternator now is lucky to last 3-4 years, which is why a prematurely dead battery may actually be caused by a dead alternator.

Typical Power Demands on a car's charging system are as follows:

And this doesn't include amperage requirements for items like cell phones, laptops, CD players, boom boxes or additional lights.

Understanding the importance of having an operational warning light for the alternator (idiot light) is crucial to catching problems early. In most modern systems, the electrical current passing through the filament of the warning light is what energizes a circuit in the alternator to start charging.

This signal light is linked directly to the alternator through its terminal (#1, I, L, D+, etc. depending on the brand) and functions slightly differently on different manufacturers.

To check the warning light circuit, turn the ignition switch to the "on" position without cranking or starting the engine; if the idiot light does not come on, remove the plug from the alternator and ground the wire that terminates to the #1, I, L or D+ terminal (depending on the manufacturer). If the light comes on, the wiring is okay but the alternator is defective; if the light still does not come on, the wiring to the light circuit and the bulb should be checked.

Don't forget to check the fuse that controls the light circuit, too. This fuse could be labelled differently in various cars. It could be labeled "charging", "regulator", "meters", "gauges" or "engine". In some cars, if the fuse is out, the idiot light will come on but may not go off. In others (like GM), a burned-out fuse may make the warning light work in reverse order; that is, when the key is on, the light is off but as soon as the engine starts and the alternator starts charging, the light will come on.

Checking out these simple circuits first can greatly reduce your troubleshooting time and unnecessary replacement of your alternator.

As we delve further into charge light indicators, we find that in some cases it is normal for the charge indicator light to come on when nothing is wrong with the alternator.

According to information published by GM, any car may have a low voltage reading or lights that dim when electrical loads are heavy at idle. Furthermore, this condition is normal and no repairs should be attempted unless a fault has been found.

For clarification, as a car idles for extended periods of time during high heat conditions, a number of things happen that contribute to "lowered" alternator output that coincides with physics and the design of the alternator:

1.  As heat within the alternator increases, the electrical resistance in the alternator also increases, which reduces the alternator's charging capacity.

2.  As temperature rises, the voltage setpoint of the regulator is lowered to reduce the chance of overcharging or "boiling" the battery.

3.  Newer designed alternators have a "delay/soft start" built into the regulator circuit. This delays the load being placed upon the engine when starting up from a stop so that the smaller engines in use today are not loaded down upon acceleration due to changing demands. This can delay the charging by up to 15 seconds.

With the alternator's capacity for charging reduced by heat and other factors, an alternator may only be able to produce up to 70% of its rated output under these conditions. So an alternator rated for 100 amps may only be able to produce 70 amps when hot at idle when there are 77 or more amps of demand on it.

If it can be considered normal for warning lights to glow while a healthy alternator is running, how do you know if the alternator is really good or if there are other problems lurking around?

A thorough diagnosis is always the best route to determining whether or not the alternator is at fault, but there are times when diagnosis time is short and you still need a positive identification of the problem. Cases like this require a foolproof tool to speed things up. In the case of Delco CS series alternators, there is a tool available from Kent-Moore tools (J-41450-B), which isolates the alternator from the car's wiring harness and lets you see if the alternator is at fault or if there is a wiring problem elsewhere within the car's wiring harness. The best thing about this tool, besides being compact and handheld, is that it doesn't require any interpretation of data by the operator. The little light on the unit lights or doesn't light depending upon whether the alternator is good or not.

Unfortunately, while this is a great little piece of equipment and there are other similar tools available, once you determine that the alternator is not the culprit, you still have to fix the electrical problem.

Your Import Car's Starter

The other major electrical component in your car's electrical system is used only a few times a day but is the single largest power user and most critical to your car's operation - its starter. The starter is simply a DC motor that turns the engine crankshaft through the flywheel, starting the combustion process by creating compression within the cylinders. Voltage to the starter is supplied directly from the battery and is controlled by a relay and/or solenoid operated from the key switch inside your car.

Starters can be of varying types and designs - gear-reduction types for higher torque, permanent-magnet types to reduce size and weight, or just plain, old-fashioned heavy starters. But whatever the type, they all function in the same basic way.

A slow cranking engine may be a sign of a bad starter and with age, that's more and more likely. But on most cars today, it's due to low battery voltage, poor electrical connections at the battery or a failed relay or fusible link.

Most starters will easily outlast a new vehicle warranty if it's not overused, if good connections are maintained and if it's not overheated through dirt and grime buildup.

Starting your car with the major components turned off (like the AC compressor, blower motor and high-powered stereos) will greatly ease the load on the starter. In fact, most new cars have "lockout" relays that will not allow the AC compressor and alternator to turn on until after the vehicle has been started. But turning these power-hogs off before shutting off your car is always a good precaution.

Although the starter drive, or "Bendix" as it was commonly referred to, can be replaced separately from the starter assembly, it's rarely recommended anymore. Failure of any part is due to age, usage and heat stress, to which the entire starter has also been subjected so that other parts are just as old and stressed. It's quite common to replace the starter drive only to have to buy another starter in a few months because the brushes wore out, a magnet broke, the solenoid failed, among other common mishaps. Replace the starter as a unit and have the electrical system checked at the same time to prevent further problems.

Other Troubleshooting & Maintenance Tips
For Your Import Car's Electrical System

Your car's electrical system should be completely checked and tested every two years or whenever serviced for any type of driveability problem. Many problems associated with day-to-day driveability are caused by voltage variations and must be the first step in troubleshooting any problem. This is due to the use of computerized controls in most cars these days and even quite minor voltage changes can alter the controls.

Your car's electrical system must be load tested to certain standards, which can be simulated by turning on all the accessories and lights for simple voltage drain but that is not an all-inclusive test. Measuring circuit loads with an ammeter, circuit voltage drops with a DVOM, variable circuit load testing, etc. is the only way to fully check function. With electrical systems operating at 80%-100% of capacity nowadays (see Power Demand Chart), it is crucial that it be up to standards.

The average do-it-yourselfer would have little need to purchase the more critical test equipment, so if voltmeter testing doesn't pinpoint the problem, get a thorough checkup done from an auto electrical technician who knows your car manufacturer's system.

A complete and thorough test involves much more than sticking a voltmeter on the battery and the average do-it-yourselfer does not have the test equipment nor does he/she need it. You should allow a professional to do this test. As a good starting point, though, most major chain auto parts stores offer a free service test (in the hopes of selling you a battery or alternator) that should be good enough to notify you of any major problems. Most early problems start from poor electrical connections due to loose connections and/or buildup of corrosion, especially at the battery posts. Keep that battery clean!

Idiot Light Electrical Problems By Car Make

Here are a few quirky electrical problems - organized by car make - to help you troubleshoot your import car's electrical system idiosyncrasies:

BMW #1: The starter on many late model BMWs incorporates a one-way clutch that allows the engine to spin faster than the starter during the engagement. While this makes for smooth, quiet starting and gear engagement, it also provides an opportunity for problems.

Many BMWs requiring a Bosch reman starter SR0445X are experiencing multiple starter failures due to the starter motor remaining engaged after the engine has started and the ignition key has been released.

You guessed it . . . there's nothing wrong with the starter - it's the ignition lock cylinder assembly. The mechanical portion of the ignition switch gets hung up in the start position and doesn't return to the run position. When this happens, the one-way clutch in the starter allows the starter to continue spinning with the engine; prolonged use in this condition will overheat the starter causing permanent damage as well as draining the battery. To correct this condition, the entire lock cylinder, steering lock and electrical switch unit must be replaced.

BMW #2: BMW has recognized that a similar problem exists with 1989 635s (AL145X and AL0740X Bosch reman alternators), where the battery runs down due to a 300 milliamp draw on the battery caused by the trunk light switch. Instead of coming up with a new switch, BMW suggests that the trunk light switch that is connected to terminal "30" (hot at all times) be rerouted to terminal "R", which is only "hot" when the ignition switch is sent to Accy, Run or Start.

In order to do this, the red/green wire should be removed from the glove box light, then taped securely back into the wiring harness. Next, a length of .75mm wire approximately 700mm long should have a connector and connector housing attached to one end. This end should then be connected to the glove box light, where the red/green wire was removed.

The other end of the 700mm long wire should be connected to the violet/white wire from the radio using a crimp type connector. This may sound too simple and maybe it is . . . you have to remove the glove box trim and the radio to perform this wiring maneuver.

BMW #3: 1992 BMW 318i models with a central locking system may exhibit frequently discharged batteries due to dome lights sporadically remaining on. This is due to faulty door lock striker plates that have the light contact switch built-in. Seems that some versions of these switches were leaky and when water, dirt, salt, etc. leaked in, the contacts in the switch were bridged causing the lights to stay on even though the car was not running. Rather than needlessly replace the alternator (Bosch reman alternators AL0153X, AL0152X, AL0151X), look at the striker plates first. If they have an alphabetic letter lower than "L", they need to be replaced with an improved switch (51 21 8 105 511).

Honda/Acura #1: Some 1986-88 Acura Legend Sedans and Coupes and 1987-91 Sterlings (Bosch reman alternator AL250X) may exhibit a low charging rate condition. This situation is caused by an alternator pulley of incorrect diameter. To correct this condition, Acura has issued a pulley/belt kit (06310-PL2-004), which contains a smaller diameter pulley and belt. This pulley/belt combination increases the alternator RPM, which increases the alternator output at low engine RPMs.

Honda/Acura #2: Some 1982 Honda Accords suffer repeated alternator and battery failures due to a melted plastic 6-wire connector in the charging circuit wiring harness. The original charging circuit wiring does not have a wire of sufficient diameter to handle the maximum current of the alternator under repeated high charging demands. When replacing alternators (Bosch reman alternator AL258X) on these cars, always inspect the condition of this connector as a part of the procedure. It will be necessary to remove the windshield wiper fluid reservoir to gain access to the connector because it's located between the battery and the reservoir. A wiring harness with increased charging capacity and replacement plastic connectors is available through Honda.

Honda/Acura #3: 1991-1992 Honda Accords and 1990-1992 Acura Legends (Bosch reman alternator AL1262X) suffer from a similar malady as BMWs. The glove box light may stay on after the car has been turned off, causing an undue discharge of the battery, leading to a low state of charge or a no-start condition.

Honda and Acura both suggest to first check the glove box door for proper alignment. If the door is properly aligned, then the switch plunger for the glove box light is too short. To fix this, a retro-fit tube cap has been released by the manufacturers of these cars which, when placed over the original switch plunger, extends it to the proper length to make the glove box light shut off when necessary. Tube cap part numbers are 34254-SM4-013 (Honda) or 34254-SP0-A03 (Acura).

Honda/Acura #4: Honda Accords, Preludes, Civics and Acura Integras built from 1986-1989 (Bosch reman alternators AL256X, AL382X, AL383X, AL386X, AL387X, AL388X, AL451X) are prone to a no-start condition due to a low battery charge. This condition can be traced to frequent short trip driving with the rear window defogger left in the "on" position, along with high underhood temperatures. The combination of the continual discharge due to the defogger being left on and the high underhood temperatures tends to cause these models to dine out frequently on batteries.

To curb the battery appetite of these cars, Honda and Acura have introduced defogger switch/timers and a battery heat shield. The defogger switch/timer automatically shuts off after 25 minutes, and the heat shield helps deflect some of the engine's heat away from the battery. Honda part numbers are 35500-SE0-A11 (defogger switch/timer) and 06377-SE3-A00 (battery cover kit). Acura only offers these parts as a complete kit: 1986-87 models are kit 06377-SD2-A01 and 1988-89 models are kit 06377-SD2-A11.

Jaguar #1: 1992-94 Jaguar sedans (Bosch reman alternators AL191X and AL192X) are prone to batteries in a low state of charge due to cooling fans staying on after the ignition has been shut off. The cause of this condition has been traced to corrosion in the cooling fan control module. To repair this condition, the corrosion must be removed from the control module, but the real culprit is how the corrosion gets there.

The corrosion is caused by water entering the ground wire cores and travelling inside the wire insulation to the module. To prevent this from happening again, the ground wire eyelet connectors on the left inner front fender panel must be disconnected and sealed with heat shrink tubing to prevent water from entering the wires again.

Jaguar #2: Owners of 1994 XJ6s and XJ12s (Bosch reman alternators AL9343X, AL192X) may get tired of taking their cats back to the car vet for repeated cases of discharged batteries. In many cases, these kitties are suffering from a feline disease known as "cooling fan run on".

This condition is brought on by corrosion in the cooling fan wiring harness connector. To cure this condition, the existing harness connection has to be located behind the front left side fog lamp. If an inspection of the harness connector shows it to be corroded, Jaguar suggests that it be replaced with a new radiator fan switch kit - part numbers JLM12040 (XJ6s) and JLM12041 (XJ12s).

Upon installation of the replacement connectors, all wiring connections should be done with the use of a "Duraseal" connector to prevent corrosion in the future.

Porsche #1: Owners of Porsche 911s (Bosch reman starter SR68X) commonly complain of starters with a severe toothache due to damaged teeth on the pinion gear. Before installing another starter, inspect the teeth on the ring gear. If they appear damaged, Porsche suggests replacing the original ring gear with a new ring gear (950 116 143 01), which is wider. The wider ring gear provides for better engagement of the pinion gear and, in turn, longer life for both the starter and ring gear.

Porsche #2: As early as 1984, many 1978-83 Porsche 911s hit the emergency room with complaints ranging from low output to no output. After a thorough examination, Porsche determined that the location of the alternator in the engine compartment was the cause of apparent heatstroke.

Since they could not redesign the layout of the engine compartment, Porsche prescribed a new voltage regulator, which had aluminium cooling fins and two cable connections instead of one. This improved design helps the voltage regulator dissipate heat better and provides higher reliability. This remedy worked so well that Porsche made it a running production change in the 1984 and later models.

To help keep these Porsches in tip-top shape, Bosch has been remanufacturing Porsche 911 and 928 alternators (AL325X, AL400X and AL401X) with 100% new original Valeo voltage regulators since July of 1996.

As an added cure for these same cars, Bosch has introduced three new part numbers - alternators that are not remanufactured but are actually brand, spanking new - AL325N, AL400N and AL401N. These are 100% factory original new Valeo alternators. Obviously, these are a bit higher priced than their remanufactured counterparts, but they are just what the doctor ordered for you Porsche Purists who want only an original.

Porsche #3: Many early model Volkswagen, Porsche and Saab cars (Bosch reman starters SR15X, SR17X, SR68X, SR78X) suffer from a condition where the starter motor cranks slowly or not at all. On these vehicles, a minimum of 7 volts is required to activate the starter solenoid.

If the car's starting and charging system have been inspected for proper battery voltage, cable connections/conditions, and placement of starter heat shields and this problem still persists, it may be necessary to install a starter relay kit, in order to ensure that the proper voltage gets to the starter. Bosch now offers a complete relay kit (WR1), which consists of a wiring harness, a relay, a 15 amp fuse and a complete set of installation instructions.

Saab #1: At times, 1989 Saab 900 and 9000 series cars (Bosch reman alternators AL69X, AL129X and AL54X) can experience dead batteries. Before checking the charging system, look at the part number on the radiator fan time-delay relay. Radiator fan time-delay relay #95 63 339 is prone to stick closed, which will cause the cooling fan to run longer than the 10-minute cool-down period, thus discharging the battery. If the car in question is equipped with one of these relays, replace the relay with an 85 22 10.

Saab #2: Many early model Volkswagen, Porsche and Saab cars (Bosch reman starters SR15X, SR17X, SR68X, SR78X) suffer from a condition where the starter motor cranks slowly or not at all. On these vehicles, a minimum of 7 volts is required to activate the starter solenoid.

If the car's starting and charging system have been inspected for proper battery voltage, cable connections/conditions, and placement of starter heat shields and this problem still persists, it may be necessary to install a starter relay kit, in order to ensure that the proper voltage gets to the starter. Bosch now offers a complete relay kit (WR1), which consists of a wiring harness, a relay, a 15 amp fuse and a complete set of installation instructions.

Volkswagen #1: Volkswagens that repeatedly exhibit a no-start or discharged battery condition may be victims of a loose fastening nut on terminal #30 of the starter solenoid. Any suspect Volkswagens should have all wires connected to the #30 terminal removed and inspected for corroded or burnt connections and cleaned as necessary. Then reconnect previously removed wires and torque fasteners to 10 Nm (7.5 ft. lb.) and recheck the starting system (Bosch reman starters SR15X and SR17X).

Volkswagen #2: 1987-1993 VW Foxs can really drive you to distraction when you know that the battery is fully charged, all of your connections are clean and tight, you've just replaced the starter (Bosch reman SR0406X) and it still won't start!

What else can you check? The fuse box. That's right, there is a wire bridge located between terminals 36 and 38 that needs to be properly seated to assure power to the starter. By making sure the wire bridge is securely seated, you should have outfoxed the Fox.

Volkswagen #3: Many early model Volkswagen, Porsche and Saab cars (SR15X, SR17X, SR68X and SR78X) suffer from a condition where the starter motor cranks slowly or not at all. On these vehicles, a minimum of 7 volts is required to activate the starter solenoid.

If the car's starting and charging system have been inspected for proper battery voltage, cable connections/conditions, and placement of starter heat shields and this problem still persists, it may be necessary to install a starter relay kit, in order to ensure that the proper voltage gets to the starter. Bosch now offers a complete relay kit (WR1), which consists of a wiring harness, a relay, a 15 amp fuse and a complete set of installation instructions.

Volkswagen #4: Seems VWs are just prone to hot-soak, won't-start conditions. Volkswagen has recognized that Rabbits, Golfs and Jettas from 1985 on (Bosch reman starters SR33X, SR34X and SR82X) also suffer from a hot-soak condition where battery voltage to the #50 terminal of the starter drops to less than 10 volts under high underhood temperatures, resulting in a car that won't crank.

If a complete check of the car's charging and starting system reveals no other problems, Volkswagen suggests a VW retrofit starter relay (141 951 253B) be installed in-line between the T1 connector of the right engine harness and the T1 connector of the starter cable harness, which leads to the terminal #50 of the starter solenoid. Other required components and installation directions are available through your VW dealer.

Volkswagen #5: From time to time, we hear the complaint that on some cars the SR15N (Bosch new starter) cannot be installed properly due to interference between the starter solenoid and the heat exchanger/hot air box. This condition seems especially prevalent on VW Type II and Bus/Transporter vehicles.

Due to the age of these cars (1967-75 applications), many of them have had the heat exchangers replaced. Bosch's research has shown that not all aftermarket heat exchangers are created equal to the OEM version. Whenever one of these "won't fit" situations arises, it's usually because the heat exchanger has been replaced. In cases like this, either the heat exchanger will have to be replaced with an OEM type or the aftermarket one already in place will have to be altered to provide clearance for the starter.

Volkswagen #6: Before changing multiple alternators or starters in VWs equipped with A/C due to a "won't start" or "no crank" condition, check out the radiator cooling fan.

All Volkswagen cars equipped with air conditioning (except the Vanagon) are subject to a condition during high ambient temperatures (105 F/41 C), where the battery is continually drained due to the radiator fan kicking on at high speed with the ignition shut off. It seems that under these high heat conditions, the gas pressure of the R12 refrigerant can activate the A/C high-pressure switch and in turn, trigger the high-speed radiator fan relay to activate the cooling fan.

Volkswagen has instituted a replacement fan relay switch (321 919 505A), which, along with some minor modification of the A/C high-pressure switch wiring, will eliminate this problem.

Volkswagen #7: It seems that VW did such a great job of insulating the terminals on 1994-95 Golfs and Jettas (Bosch reman alternators AL0185X, AL0186X, AL0181X, AL0184X) that they inadvertently created some low/dead battery problems on these cars.

In some cases, the eyelet connector of the wiring harness, which connects to the B+ stud of the alternator, had just enough extra insulation applied to it to keep it from making good contact. This, in turn, prevents the alternator from charging properly.

To prevent a return trip to the battery charger, VW suggests that you disconnect the battery ground, remove the eyelet terminal from the alternator B+ stud and remove approximately 6mm of the insulation from the terminal. Then, some die electric gel should be applied to the eyelet before re-attaching to the B+ stud with a torque of 13Nm or 10 ft-lbs. Then, reattach the battery ground.

A Few Important Things to Remember

Heed these tips and you're well on your way to extending the life of your import car's electrical system components:

Tip #1: Always keep your battery and its connections clean to avoid clogged battery cover vents and overtaxing your starter. This will also allow for proper ventilation of dangerous, explosive gases from your battery.

Tip #2: When replacing your battery, always buy one of the same or higher CCA rating (cold cranking amps) as the original battery and make sure it's the same or compatible "group size" to fit your battery tray and cable connections.

Tip #3: Due to the varying nature of car electrical systems, never jump-start your car using another car that is running. Use the other vehicle's battery power alone to start it because a 14.5-volt running system (i.e., GM) can seriously damage a 12.6-volt system (i.e., BMW) due to the overvoltage.

Tip #4: Start your car with the major electrical hogs turned off - A/C, stereo, etc. - to ease the load on your battery and starter and extend their lives.

Tip #5: Have your car's electrical system completely checked and tested every two years or whenever you have it serviced for any type of driveability problem.

Your Electrical System Maintenance Shopping List

Here is a list of electrical system parts to check and maintain, plus some common tools, testers and spare parts to keep in your trunk or garage:

Check & Maintain - Replace When Necessary:

  • Battery (cleanliness, connections and up to charge)
  • Alternator (charging properly, connections and belt tension)
  • Starter (cleanliness and good connections)
  • All cables & connections, especially ground (remove rust & corrosion)

Common Tools, Testers & Spare Parts to Keep on Hand:

  • DVOM (digital volt-ohmmeter)
  • Ammeter (for testing circuit load)
  • Battery post cleaner brush or tool
  • Battery charger (w/overcharge protection)
  • Spare fuses of all sizes in car
  • Crimp-on wire connector kit w/crimping tool
  • Quality electrical tape (for good isolation and insulation)
  • Repair manual with electrical schematic

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